Hori & Tweed

Raising Autonomy by Negotiating Rules with Students
An Exploratory Discussion about Action Research into Learner Development and Autonomy


Tokiko Hori, Soka University
Email: thori@soka.ac.jp
Andrew D. Tweed, Meijo University
Email: adtweed@gmail.com


In this discussion, we reflect on our experiences with action research (AR). In particular, we focus on the application of AR in relation to promoting learner autonomy and development. We examine an AR project at a Japanese university in which Tokiko involved her students in negotiating classroom rules. Drawing on theories of autonomy and motivation, we then discuss how the increased level of organizational autonomy in the class may have been related to positive changes in students’ behaviors. In closing, we briefly describe two AR projects that we would like pursue in the future, one in a classroom context (Tokiko), and one in a self-access center (Andrew).




action research; learner autonomy; motivation; negotiation of classroom rules; self-access centers